1 CSc 361: Computer Communications and Networks
3 Assignment 3: Analysis of IP Protocol
6 1 Goal
7 The purpose of this assignment is to learn about the IP protocol. You are required to write a
8 python program to analyze a trace of IP datagrams.
9 2 Introduction
10 In this assignment, we will investigate the IP protocol, focusing on the IP datagram. Well do so
11 by analyzing a trace of IP datagrams sent and received by an execution of the traceroute program.
12 We will investigate the various fields in the IP datagram, and study IP fragmentation in detail.
13 A background of the traceroute program is summarized as follows. The traceroute program
14 operates by first sending one or more datagrams with the time-to-live (TTL) field in the IP header
15 set to 1; it then sends a series of one or more datagrams towards the same destination with a TTL
16 value of 2; it then sends a series of datagrams towards the same destination with a TTL value of 3;
17 and so on. Recall that a router must decrement the TTL in each received datagram by 1 (actually,
18 RFC 791 says that the router must decrement the TTL by at least one). If the TTL reaches 0, the
19 router returns an ICMP message (type 11 TTL-exceeded) to the sending host. As a result of this
20 behavior, a datagram with a TTL of 1 (sent by the host executing traceroute) will cause the router
21 one hop away from the sender to send an ICMP TTL-exceeded message back to the sender; the
22 datagram sent with a TTL of 2 will cause the router two hops away to send an ICMP message back
23 to the sender; the datagram sent with a TTL of 3 will cause the router three hops away to send an
24 ICMP message back to the sender; and so on. In this manner, the host executing traceroute can
25 learn the identities of the routers between itself and a chosen destination by looking at the source
26 IP addresses in the datagrams containing the ICMP TTL-exceeded messages. You will be provided
27 with a trace file created by traceroute.
28 Of course, you can create a trace file by yourself. Note that when you create the trace file,
29 you need to use different datagram sizes (e.g., 2500 bytes) so that the captured trace file includes
30 information on fragmentation.
31 3 Requirements
32 There are two requirements for this assignment:
33 3.1 Requirement 1 (R1)
34 You are required to write a python program to analyze the trace of IP datagrams created by
35 traceroute. To make terminologies consistent, in this assignment we call the source node as the
36 computer that executes traceroute. The ultimate destination node refers to the host that is the
37 ultimate destination defined when running traceroute. For example, the ultimate destination node
38 is “mit.edu” when you run
39 %traceroute mit.edu 2000
40 In addition, an intermediate destination node refers to the router that is not the ultimate destination
41 node but sends back a ICMP message to the source node.
42 As another example, you can set “don’t fragment”’ bit and set the number of probes per “ttl”
43 to 5 queries using the following command:
44 %traceroute -F -q 5 mit.edu 200
45 Your program needs to output the following information:
46 • List the IP address of the source node, the IP address of ultimate destination node, the IP
47 address(es) of the intermediate destination node(s). If multiple intermediate destination nodes
48 exist, they should be ordered by their hop count to the source node in the increasing order.
49 • Check the IP header of all datagrams in the trace file, and list the set of values in the protocol
50 field of the IP headers. Note that only different values should be listed in a set.
51 • How many fragments were created from the original datagram? Note that 0 means no frag52 mentation. Print out the offset (in terms of bytes) of the last fragment of the fragmented IP
53 datagram. Note that if the datagram is not fragmented, the offset is 0.
54 • Calculate the average and standard deviation of round trip time(s) between the source node
55 and the intermediate destination node (s) and the average round trip time between the source
56 node and the ultimate destination node. The average and standard deviation are calculated
57 over all fragments sent/received between the source nodes and the (intermediate/ ultimate)
58 destination node.
59 The output format is as follows: (Note that the values do not correspond to any trace file).
60 The IP address of the source node: 192.168.1.12
61 The IP address of ultimate destination node: 10.216.216.2
62 The IP addresses of the intermediate destination nodes:
63 router 1: 24.218.01.102,
64 router 2: 184.108.40.206,
65 router 3: 10.215.118.1.
67 The values in the protocol field of IP headers:
68 1: ICMP
69 17: UDP
72 The number of fragments created from the original datagram is: 3
73 The offset of the last fragment is: 3680
75 The avg RRT between 192.168.1.12 and 24.218.01.102 is: 50 ms, the s.d. is: 5 ms
76 The avg RRT between 192.168.1.12 and 220.127.116.11 is: 100 ms, the s.d. is: 6 ms
77 The avg RRT between 192.168.1.12 and 10.215.118.1 is: 150 ms, the s.d. is: 5 ms
78 The avg RRT between 192.168.1.12 and 10.216.216.2 is: 200 ms, the s.d. is: 15 ms
80 3.2 Requirement 2 (R2)
81 Note: You can finish this part either with a python program or by manually col82 lecting/analyzing data. In other words, coding is optional for the tasks listed in this
84 From a given set of five traceroute trace files, all with the same destination address,
85 • determine the number of probes per “ttl” used in each trace file,
86 • determine whether or not the sequence of intermediate routers is the same in different trace
88 • if the sequence of intermediate routers is different in the five trace files, list the difference and
89 explain why,
90 • if the sequence of intermediate routers is the same in the five trace files, draw a table as shown
91 below (warning: the values in the table do not correspond to any trace files) to compare
92 the RRTs of different traceroute attempts. From the result, which hop is likely to incur the
93 maximum delay? Explain your conclusion.
TTL Average RRT Average RRT Average RRT Average RRT Average RRT
in trace 1 in trace 2 in trace 3 in trace 4 in trace 5
1 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.9
2 0.9 1 1.2 1.2 1.3
3 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.5
4 2.5 2 2 2.5 3
5 3 2.5 3 3.5 3.5
6 5 4 5 4.5 4
95 4 Miscellaneous
96 Important! Please read!
97 • Some intermediate router may only send back one “ICMP TTL exceeded” message for multiple
98 fragments of the same datagram. In this case, please use this ICMP message to calculate RTT
99 for all fragments. For example, Assume that the source sends Frag 1, Frag2, Frag 3 (of the
100 same datagram, ID: 3000). The timestamps for Frag1, Frag2, Frag3 are t1, t2, t3, respectively.
101 Later, the source receives one “ICMP TTL exceeded” message (ID: 3000). The timestamp is
102 T. Then the RRTs are calculated as: T − t1, T − t2, T − t3.
103 • More explanation about the output format
104 The number of fragments created from the original datagram is:
106 The offset of the last fragment is:
107 If there are multiple fragmented datagrams, you need to output the above information for
108 each datagram. For example, assume that the source sends two datagrams: D1, D2, where
109 D1 and D2 are the identification of the two datagram. Assume that D1 has three fragments
110 and D2 has two fragments. Then output should be:
111 The number of fragments created from the original datagram D1 is: 3
113 The offset of the last fragment is: xxx.
116 The number of fragments created from the original datagram D2 is: 2
118 The offset of the last fragment is: yyy.
120 where xxx and yyy denote the actual number calculated by your program.
121 • If the tracefile is captured in Linux, the source port number included in the original UDP
122 can be used to match against the ICMP error message. This is due to the special traceroute
123 implementation in linux, which uses UDP and ICMP. If the tracefile is captured in Windows,
124 we should use the sequence number in the returned ICMP error message to match the sequence
125 number in the ICMP echo (ping) message from the source node. Note that this ICMP error
126 message (type 11) includes the content of the ICMP echo message (type 8) from the source.
127 This is due to the special traceroute implementation in Windows, which uses ICMP only
128 (mainly message type 8 and message type 11). It is also possible that traceroute may be
129 implemented in another different way. For instance, we have found that some traceroute
130 implementation allows users to select protocol among ICMP, TCP, UDP and GRE. To avoid
131 the unnecessary complexity of your program, you only need to handle the two scenarios
132 in finding a match between the original datagram and the returned ICMP error
133 message: either (1) use the source port number in the original UDP, or (2) use the
134 sequence number in the original ICMP echo message. You code should automatically
135 find out the right case for matching datagrams in the trace file. We will not test your code
136 with a trace file not falling in the above cases.
137 5 Deliverables and Marking Scheme
138 For your final submission of your assignment, you are required to submit your source code to connex.
139 You should include a readme file to tell TA how to compile and run your code. At the last lab
140 session that you attend, you need to demo your assignment to TAs. Nevertheless, before the final
141 due date, you can still make changes on your code and submit a change.txt file to connex to describe
142 the changes after your demo.
143 The marking scheme is as follows:
The IP address of the source node (R1) 5
The IP address of ultimate destination node (R1) 5
The IP addresses of the intermediate destination nodes (R1) 10
The correct order of the intermediate destination nodes (R1) 5
The values in the protocol field of IP headers (R1) 5
The number of fragments created from the original datagram (R1) 15
The offset of the last fragment (R1) 10
The avg RRTs (R1) 10
The standard deviations (R1) 5
The number of probes per ttl (R2) 10
Right answer to the second question (R2) 5
Right answer to the third/or fourth question (R2) 10
Readme.txt and change.txt(if any) 5
Total Weight 100
145 6 Plagiarism
146 This assignment is to be done individually. You are encouraged to discuss the design of your solution
147 with your classmates, but each person must implement their own assignment.
148 The End