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Assignment #4: Binary Trees

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CSC 115: Fundamentals of Programming II
Assignment #4: Binary Trees

Learning outcomes:
Upon completion of this assignment, you need to be able to:
 Implement a binary tree using a reference based structure.
 Become more familiar with the use of generics in Java.
 Implement iterators that traverse a binary tree in pre, in, and post
order.
 Implement a binary search tree that extends a regular binary tree.
 Continue to apply good programming practice in
o designing programs,
o proper documentation,
o testing and debugging problems with code (the marking tester
will not be provided this time).
References:
 CSC115 Java coding conventions.
 Textbook Chapter 11 Sections 11.1, 11.2 and 11.3.
Introduction
In this course, we create data structures that are containers for items as a means to
store, insert, retrieve and remove these items. Each of the ADTs we’ve studied have been
linear (linear) data structures, in that they store items one after the other. In this
assignment, we implement a basic binary tree that stores and allows access to any object
in a non-linear ADT. Extending the basic binary tree, we also create a binary tree that
stores data types, taking advantage of their natural ordering.
Traversing a linear data structure is intuitive; we start at one end and continue through
the line one item at a time. A binary tree, however, has four different traversals: three
that are implemented using recursion, and another (level order) that is implemented
using a queue. In this assignment, you will implement the three recursive traversals by
completing a linear data structure that stores the ordered items, and uses an Iterator
object to serve the items.
To illustrate the uses of the basic binary tree, we dust off the arithmetic expression from
Assignment 3 and discover that converting infix to postfix can be performed by
returning a post-order iterator. To illustrate the uses of a binary search tree (BST), we insert
items and note that an in-order iterator provides us with a sorted list of items.
Quick Start
(1) Create a fresh directory to contain this assignment: CSC115/assn4 is a recommended
name. Download this pdf file and the a4_files.zip file to this directory.
(2) Extract the a4_files.zip file. A directory will be created to store both the Java files and
the HTML files which contain the specifications for the public classes.
(3) The following files are complete:
 TreeNode.java
 InvalidExpressionException.java
 TreeException.java
 DrawableBTree.java
 Tools.java
 Expression.java
(4) The following files are partially done and need to be completed:
 BinaryTree.java
 BinaryTreeIterator.java
 BinarySearchTree.java
[Hint]
This assignment may seem complicated on your first read-through. There are a lot of
concepts, and many of them are set in the assignment to guide you through the process
of creating programs that are modular and interact well with other programs. Please
take our advice and go through this assignment in steps. These steps have been set out
with the intention of helping you develop understanding incrementally as you progress
from one step to another. As a bonus, we hope you note the intricacies of the provided
code and use these to develop your own personal style of programming.
Descriptions of the Helper Classes
The completed java classes are used to support and test the Binary trees. You must NOT
change these, however, it is highly recommended that you examine and understand them.
 InvalidExpressionException and TreeException need noexplanations.
 TreeNode is a package-protected class and therefore has no specification
document. The textbook has a description of a TreeNode that contains a reference
to both a left and right child. The authors’ implementation appears less
complicated, however, all paths in their trees are one-way. The TreeNode in this
assignment also contains a reference to the parent node, which may or may not be
used. Using a parent data field requires some extra linking statements during
insert and remove, but it allows two-way directional access. You may choose
whatever you like: if you choose not to use the parent data field, then just ignore it
in the tree implementations.
 Expression is a slightly modified ArithExpression from Assignment 3. You may use
this class as the tester for the BinaryTree class once it is working. The tokenize
method is unchanged, except that the infix tokens are stored in an array. To access
the postfix expression, the infix expression is inserted into the BinaryTree and if
everything works as expected, the postfix expression is created by the postfix
traversal ofthe binary tree. You do not need to do anything except run this class.
 Tools is exactly the same as in Assignment 3. It acts as a helper class for the
Expression class.
 DrawableBTree is provided as a means to render the BinaryTrees. The rendering
statements are already included in the Expression class so you can test the
BinaryTree class visually. Once you start inserting a few items into the
BinarySearchTree, simply add the following two lines to the main method to
render the tree:
where classname is the actual type of items stored (e.g. String) and theTree is the
variable name of the BinarySearchTree object. The second statement causes a
frame to become visible on the desktop. You can resize the frame as desired and
the tree will expand to fit the frame. While the frame is visible, the Java Virtual
Machine (JVM) will keep running, and will quit when you close the frame.
Implementation
The following sections describe the classes that you must complete, in the order you
create them.
BinaryTree
The BinaryTree class is a basic binary tree that contains generic elements.
Implement the methods as instructed, following the specifications. Most of the
methods follow the descriptions from the textbook, where the authors provide details
on the implementation. The only added method is the public height() method,
which calls a private height method: you must use recursion to implement this
method.
[*]
∗One can never get enough recursion practice.
DrawableBTree dbt = new DrawableBTree<classname>(theTree);
dbt.showFrame();
BinaryTreeIterator
The textbook discusses the BinaryTreeIterator interface in detail. An Iterator object
allows any number of users to traverse a data structure at one time (think about it as
a personal bookmark for a book that is shared). Follow the tip notes in this partially
completed class to create the iterator object. Note that in the BinaryTree, each iterator
method returns a newly created iterator object.
BinarySearchTree
The BinarySearchTree class extends BinaryTree in that it stores only those items that
have a natural ordering. The reason for this is that the BinarySearchTree imposes an
ordering on its items. In Java, every class that has a natural ordering implements
Comparable class. In other words, the item class must have a compareTo() method that
determines which of two items come earlier in an ordered list. Java generics allows us to
specify that every item in the BinarySearchTree implements Comparable by requiring
that E extends Comparable<E>.
[†]
BinarySearchTree inherits every non-public data field and method from BinaryTree,
except the constructors. We do not want BinarySearchTree to inherit the public methods
that allow a user to add whole left or right subtrees, so we must override these methods
with new statements that prevent a user from implementing the BinaryTree version of
these methods. We demonstrate how to do this with one of the methods and you are to
implement the second one.
Most methods are described in the textbook. Several methods are easily implemented
using recursion, such as retrieve() and insert(). Although the textbook authors use
recursion for each of the remove cases, you do not have to if you prefer to take
advantage of the parent data field in the TreeNode class.
Submission
Submit the following completed files to the Assignment folder on conneX.
 BinaryTree.java
 BinaryTreeIterator.java
 BinarySearchTree.java
Please make sure you have submitted the required file(s) and conneX has sent you a
confirmation email. Do not send [.class] (the byte code) or [.zip] (the compressed folder)
files. Also, make sure you submit your assignment, not just save a draft. Draft copies are
not made available to the instructors, so they are not collected with the other
submissions. We can find your draft submission, but only if we know that it’s there.

If you find yourself asking why Java generics require the keyword extend instead of implements for the
interface Comparable, you would not be the first.
A Note about Academic Integrity
It is OK to talk about your assignment with your classmates, and you are encouraged to
design solutions together, but each student must implement their own solution.
Grading Scheme
Marks are allocated for the following:
 Proper programming style is demonstrated, as per the coding conventions on
CSC115 conneX Resources. All “NOTE TO STUDENT” comments must be removed
from the code.
 Source code that follows the specifications and instructions.
 Internal testing:
o BinaryTree does not need internal testing. The Expression class can
be run to test the basics.
o BinarySearchTree must test ALL its methods, as well as the appropriate
public methods that inherit from BinaryTree.
 You will receive no marks for any Java files that do not compile.
Requirement Marks
Proper programming style as per the code conventions on CSC115
conneX Resources
2
Write tests for ALL the methods in BinarySearchTree in its main() 1
Pass tests for BinaryTree class (3 test)
Constructor (1 test) 1
attachRightSubtree (1 test) 1
height() method (1 test) 1
Pass tests for BinaryTreeIterator class (9 test)
Constructor (1 test) 1
In-order traversal (4 test) 2
Post-order traversal (4 test) 2
Pass tests for BinarySearchTree class (9 tests)
attachRightSubtree (1 test) 1
insert() method (1 test) 1
retrieve() method (1 test) 1
In-order traversal (1 test) 1
Post-order traversal (1 test) 1
delete() method (4 test) 4
Total 20

PlaceholderAssignment #4: Binary Trees
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