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# CME 211: Homework 4

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CME 211: Homework 4

This assignment was designed by Patrick LeGresley and modified for the purposes of this course.
Background
A simple structural engineering problem is the analysis of the stability and/or forces in a 2D truss:
Figure 1: 2D truss
The truss is made up of beams that are joined by frictionless pins, and the supports are rigidly fashioned
so that they cannot move. Using the method of joints, external forces only act at the pinned joints (as in
joint 5 above), and the beams are perfectly rigid. This means that the only forces in the beams are in the
direction of the beams. The truss is in equilibrium if the forces at each joint sum to zero. For an example
joint, and assuming the beams are in compression, the two static equilibrium equations for joint 2 are shown
in Figure 2 where B is the compression force that is directed along the direction of the beam and F is
the (possibly non-zero) external force at each joint and could have arbitrary direction. These external forces
are an input to the analysis and will often be zero for many of the joints. Note that if the beam is actually in
tension, the sign of the force will turn out to be negative instead of positive.
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Figure 2: Example static equilibrium equations for joint 2
With two equations per joint, the total number of equations is twice the number of joints. The unknowns in
the system of equations are:
• the compression or tension force for each beam
• the x and y components of the reaction force due to the fixed supports, denoted R in Figure 3
In general the reaction forces can have an arbitrary direction and depend on the external forces applied to
the truss.
Figure 3: Reaction force at the supports
If there are a different number of equations and unknowns the system is either over or underdetermined and
is not a suitable geometry for static equilibrium analysis using the method of joints. However, just because a
given truss geometry has an equal number of equations and unknowns does not mean the resulting system of
equations can be solved. An unstable geometry, such as in Figure 4, will be apparent if the linear system of
equations turns out to be singular.
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Figure 4: Unstable truss geometry
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Preparation
• This assignment requires that you have completed CME211 HW0.
• Make sure you have an up-to-date local clone of your CME211 homework repository.
• Create directory named hw4 at the top level of your CME211 homework repository.
• All work for this homework goes inside of the hw4 directory.
Assignment (60 points functionality, 20 points design, 10 points style, 10 points
writeup)
Your submission will include a truss.py file defining a Truss class for loading and analyzing a 2D truss using
the method of joints and a main.py file to execute your program from the command line. The initialization
method of your class should take as arguments the names for joints and beams files respectively.
Figures 5 and 6 show the files truss1/joints.dat and truss1/beams.dat.
Joints files start with a comment line with column names indicated with #. The first column is the one based
joint number and the file will always be in joint number order. The second and third columns refer to the x
and y positions of the joints respectively. Columns labeled Fx and Fy are components of the external forces
being applied at each joint. The last column is a Boolean value indicating whether this is a rigidly supported
point with zero displacements.
# joint x y Fx Fy zerodisp
1 0. 0. 0. 0. 1
2 1. 1. 0. 0. 0
3 1. 0. 0. 0. 0
4 2. 1. 0. 0. 0
5 2. 0. 0. -1. 0
6 3. 1. 0. 0. 1
Figure 5: file: truss1/joints.dat
Beam files also starts with a comment line. The first column is the one based beam number and the file will
always be in beam number order. For each beam the remaining two columns contain the one based index of
the two joints connected by the beam.
# beam Ja Jb
1 1 2
2 1 3
3 2 3
4 3 5
5 2 4
6 4 5
7 4 6
8 5 6
Figure 6: file: truss1/beams.dat
The PlotGeometry() method of your class should use matplotlib to create a simple plot showing the geometry
of the truss as shown in Figure 7. The method should take in a file name as a Python string and save the plot
at that location. In main.py, this method should be optionally invoked if the user of your program specifies
a file name as the third command line argument.
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Figure 7: Simple matplotlib plot of 2D truss geometry from Figure 1
A string representation method should print the beam forces for the truss (see below for expected output
formatting).
In addition to the __init__(), PlotGeometry(), and __repr__() methods, you will need to implement one
or more additional methods to implement the actual analysis of the truss to compute the beam forces. Use
good programming practices like decomposition and where possible avoid loops in Python by using slicing
notation and calling functions from NumPy or SciPy.
For the matrix form of the equations you need to use a sparse matrix. Either a CSR and/or COO format
would be a reasonable choice. First forming the dense matrix and then converting it into a sparse matrix is
not acceptable. However, you might find it easier for your initial implementation / testing / debugging to
start by forming the dense matrix and later switch to a sparse matrix. The other option is to form the sparse
matrix from the beginning, but use the todense() method for purposes of printing it out. Either way, you
may find the NumPy set_printoptions() function useful for controlling how NumPy wraps rows of the
matrix when printing it out.
The main.py file gathers command line arguments, demonstrates use of your Truss class, and prints the
instance to show the computed beam forces for the truss. If called with no input arguments, the program
outputs a usage message. For basic operation main.py must be passed filenames for joint and beam data
as the first two command line arguments. An optional third argument specifies the output filename for a
matplotlib plot. Example usage is shown below:
\$ python3 main.py
Usage:
python3 main.py [joints file] [beams file] [optional plot output file]
\$ python3 main truss1/joints.dat truss1/beams.dat
Beam Force
—————–
1 0.000
2 -1.000
3 0.000
5
4 -1.000
5 0.000
6 0.000
7 -0.000
8 -1.414
Both truss1 and truss2 are suitable geometries for static equilibrium analysis via the method of joints.
Other examples include truss3, which is an overdetermined system, and truss4, which is the unstable
geometry from Figure 4. Your Truss class should detect these issues and raise exceptions:
\$ python3 main.py truss3/joints.dat truss3/beams.dat
Traceback (most recent call last):
File “main.py”, line 16, in &lt;module&rt;
t.ComputeStaticEquilibrium()
File “/afs/.ir.stanford.edu/users/p/l/plegresl/CME211/Assignment4/truss.py”,
line 78, in ComputeStaticEquilibrium
raise RuntimeError, “Truss geometry not suitable for static equilbrium analysis”
RuntimeError: Truss geometry not suitable for static equilbrium analysis
\$ python3 main.py truss4/joints.dat truss4/beams.dat
Traceback (most recent call last):
File “main.py”, line 16, in &lt;module&rt;
t.ComputeStaticEquilibrium()
File “/afs/.ir.stanford.edu/users/p/l/plegresl/CME211/Assignment4/truss.py”,
line 116, in ComputeStaticEquilibrium
raise RuntimeError, “Cannot solve the linear system, unstable truss?”
RuntimeError: Cannot solve the linear system, unstable truss?
Note that the SciPy sparse direct solver only issues a warning for a singular system. To catch warnings as
exceptions, import the warnings module and then do this sometime prior to invoking the solver:
# Catch warnings as exceptions
warnings.filterwarnings(‘error’)
Modules
You are allowed to use numpy and scipy on this assignment. However, you are not allowed to use pandas,
statistics, or tabular.
Performance
Your code will not be stress-tested. We will only test your code for correctness using the provided data files.
Write up (5 pts)
In a README.tex file provide a description of the inner workings of your Truss class. Imagine that you would
like to hand the code off to another engineer. The document should explain to the other engineer the set of
methods in the class and how they work. It is important to include details like the type of sparse matrix
used and the input and output arguments for each method.
Create a README.pdf from README.tex and commit both files to the repository.
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Checklist & submission
The following files must be present in the hw4 directory of your CME211 GitHub homework repository by
• truss.py: python module containing your Truss class
• main.py: python driver to compute forces and optionally generate a plot
Notes:
• It is not acceptable to commit auxiliary LaTeX files to your GitHub repo.
• It is acceptable to commit the truss data file directories into your GitHub repository.
• Take care to follow the file and directory names exactly. Everything is case sensitive.
• Your homework is not complete until you have pushed the above files to GitHub.
• Late work is not accepted.
• Do regular commits when you have finished little pieces of the puzzle. Don’t do a commit for small
individual changes, but also don’t make only one huge commit. There’s no set rule for when to commit.
Whenever you feel the need to ‘save’ your (good) progress, think about committing.
• When you do a commit, type a sensible commit message such that your repository’s commit log makes
sense to an outsider, for tracking what you have done. This is very important if you work with a team
on the same code.
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CME 211: Homework 4
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