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DATA 514 Homework 3: Advanced SQL and Azure

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DATA 514 Homework 3: Advanced SQL and Azure
Objectives: To practice advanced SQL. To get familiar with commercial database management systems (SQL
Server) and using a database management system in the cloud (SQL Azure).
Assigned date: Jan. 22, 2019
Due date: Feb. 04, 2019. You have 2 weeks for this assignment.

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DATA 514 Homework 3: Advanced SQL and Azure
Objectives: To practice advanced SQL. To get familiar with commercial database management systems (SQL
Server) and using a database management system in the cloud (SQL Azure).
Assigned date: Jan. 22, 2019
Due date: Feb. 04, 2019. You have 2 weeks for this assignment.
What to turn in: hw3-q1.sql, hw3-q2.sql, etc (see below).
Assignment Details
This homework is a continuation of homework 2 but with three changes:
The queries are more challenging
You will get to use a commercial database system (i.e., no more SQLite . SQLite simply cannot execute
these queries in any reasonable amount of time; hence, we will use SQL Server, which has one of the
most advanced query optimizers. SQL Server also has a very nice client application, SQL Server
Management Studio, that you will get to use in this assignment.
You will use the Microsoft Azure cloud.
Here is again the schema of the Flights database, for your reference:
FLIGHTS (fid int, year int, month_id int, day_of_month int,
day_of_week_id int, carrier_id varchar(7), flight_num int,
origin_city varchar(34), origin_state varchar(47),
dest_city varchar(34), dest_state varchar(46),
departure_delay double, taxi_out double, arrival_delay double,
canceled int, actual_time double, distance double, capacity int,
price double)
CARRIERS (cid varchar(7), name varchar(83))
MONTHS (mid int, month varchar(9))
WEEKDAYS (did int, day_of_week varchar(9))
We leave it up to you to decide how to declare these tables and translate their types in SQL Server. But make
sure that your relations include all the attributes listed above. Note that SQL Server will complain if you try to
ingest data and it needs to truncate it because VARCHAR fields are too small.
In addition, impose the following constraints:
The primary key of the FLIGHTS table is fid.
The primary keys for the other tables are cid, mid, and did respectively.
Flights.carrier_id references Carrier.cid.
Flights.month_id references Months.mid.
Flights.day_of_week_id references Weekdays.did.
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We provide the flights database as a set of plain-text data files in the linked .tar.gz archive. Each file in this
archive contains all the rows for the named table, one row per line.
In this homework, you will do three things:
1. Create a database in the SQL Server database management system running as a service on Windows
Azure.
2. Write and test the SQL queries below; keep in mind that the queries are quite challenging, both for you
and for the database engine.
3. Reflect on using a database management system running in a public cloud.
A. Setting up an Azure SQL Database [0 points]
In this assignment, we want you to learn how to use an Azure SQL database from scratch. Your first step will
thus be to setup a database in the Azure service and importing your data. This step may seem tedious but it is
crucially important. We want you to be able to continue using Azure after the class ends. For this, you need to
know how to use the system starting from nothing.
NOTE: These steps will take some time to complete, so start early!
Step 1: Create an Azure account and log in to Azure portal
You should have received an email from [email protected] inviting you to join an organization. Follow that
link to apply the subscription to your account.
Afterwards, you will be forwarded to the Azure portal.
Step 2: Learn about Azure SQL Server
Spend some time clicking around, reading documentation, watching tutorials, and generally familiarizing yourself
with Azure and SQL Server.
Step 3: Create a database
From the Azure portal, select “+ New” on the left, , then select “Databases”, then select “SQL
Database”. This will bring up a panel with configuration options for a new DB instance.
Perform the following configuration:
Choose a database name (e.g., “data514-19wi”).
Choose a name for the resource group that will be created (e.g., “myresourcegroup”).
Select a source: Blank database
Create a new server by clicking on “Server” (it will say “Configure required settings”). A second panel will
appear to the right; click on “Create a new server” and a third panel will appear to the right of this. Fill in
the form as follows:
Choose a name for the server (e.g., “fooBarSqlserver”). Unlike your database name, the server name must
be unique across the universe of Azure SQL databases.
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Choose an admin login and password. (You will need this when access your database using tools other
than the portal.)
Set the location to “West US” or “West US 2”.
Make sure “Allow azure services to access server” is checked.
SELECT.
Change to a cheaper pricing tier. (The default is currently “Standard S2”, which is too expensive.) To do
this, click on “Pricing tier”, which will open a pane with “Standard” selected. Find the slider for “DTUs”, and
turn it all the way down to 10. It should now say the monthly cost is only $15/month.
APPLY
Select “Pin to dashboard”.
Your configuration should now look like this (again, replace the database name with data514-19wi):
Now click on the “Create” button to create this database. You will see a panel on the dashboard that says
“Deploying SQL Database” while the database is being set up: this will take a while. Once that is done, it should
open up a panel with details on your database. (If not, click on the panel for your SQL database to open it.)
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Finally, click on the button near the top that says “Set server firewall” . You will need to change
the settings before you can upload data. The easiest option is to add a rule that allows connections from any
client, which you can do as follows:
Be sure to click “Save” once you have added this rule.
Step 4: Try out the database
The simplest way to play with the database is using the built-in Query editor in the Azure portal. To launch this,
click on the “Tools” button on top (to the left of the firewall settings button you clicked before).
Select “Query editor”, and accept the warning that this is a preview feature (i.e., not necessarily what the final
launched version will look like).
Click on the “Login” button and enter the username and password that you chose when you created your
database in Step 3. Once you have done that, you can try entering SQL commands. Press the “Run” button to
execute them.
Step 5: Use the database from SQL Server Management Studio
As convenient as the Azure portal Query editor is, you may want use SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) in
order to examine SQL Server’s query execution plans. If you have Windows, SSMS may already be installed or
you should be able to download and install it from Microsoft’s web site. (For detailed instructions on installing
SSMS, see this document.)
Another option is that you can launch a Windows VM directly in Azure. The process is similar to how we created
a database instance above. Once your VM instance is running, open the panel for the instance and click on
“Connect” to download a .rdp file. On a Mac, you can then connect to your Windows machine by using
Microsoft Remote Desktop. Once connected, you can install SSMS using the link above.
When you launch SSMS, it will ask you to connect to a SQL server instance. Tell it the name of the server you
created in Step 3 above. Then, select “SQL authentication” (rather than Windows authentication) and give it your
username and password from Step 3. At that point, you should be able to see the tables of your database in the
panel on the left side. Buttons to create a new query and execute it are in the middle of the menu bar, like what
you see below:
Just to the right of the “Execute” button is an option to display the query execution plan. (It’s highlighted yellow in
the middle of the image above.) Once you do so, the query execution plan will appear in a panel on the bottom of
SSMS, as shown here. We will discuss query plans in class and you may find it useful to examine them.
Now you are ready to move on to the next part of the assignment!
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B. Ingesting Data (0 points)
Next, you will import all the data from HW2. Make sure that you execute your CREATE TABLE statements first
so that the tables you will add tuples to already exist. Also, make sure that the types of the columns in the tables
you created match the data.
To import data, you will need to use a utility called bcp, which should come with the command prompt on
Windows. (Note that you can also use a Windows VM instance on Azure.) If you are using a unix system, you can
use the freebcp utility, which is a part of freetds. On a Mac, you can install freebcp using the homebrew package
manager:
brew install freetds
Make sure that homebrew installs freetds version at least 0.95.79. (You may need to run brew update and
brew upgrade to get the most recent versions.)
The command to load [file_name] into the table [table_name] with bcp is:
bcp dbo.[table_name] in [file_name] -U [user_name]@[server_name] -P
[password] -S [server_name].database.windows.net -c -t [separator] -r
[newline] -d [database]
Here is an example with server foosqlserver.database.windows.net, user bar, and database name
data514-19wi:
bcp dbo.Flights in flights-small.csv -U [email protected] -S
foosqlserver.database.windows.net -P “some-complicated-password” -c -t “,”
-r “0x0a” -d data514-19wi
Usage of freebcp is similar to bcp except you need to use -D instead of -d when specifying the database and
you need to use \n instead of 0x0a. The same example from above becomes:
freebcp dbo.Flights in flights-small.csv -U [email protected] -S
foosqlserver.database.windows.net -P “some-complicated-password” -c -t “,”
-r “\n” -D data514-19wi
Note: Mac users might have to change the double quotes to single quotes in the command above.
Note: When loading the flights-small.csv table, bcp may appear to hang toward the end; however, it
probably did not hang. It is creating the index on the primary key, which will take what seems like an eternity but
is approximately 20 min, and then it will complete.
As a sanity check, count the number of rows in Flights and make sure it matches the number of rows in the
SQLite Flights table. If the count on SQL Server is too low, the data didn’t all get imported. You will need to drop
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the table and try again.
If it continues to not work, you can try splitting the flights-small.csv file into multiple smaller files and
importing them one at a time. On Mac, to split the file into 10 smaller files, run:
split -l 114868 flights-small.csv flights-small-part
On Windows, you can either use cygwin (to get the same command) or install something like HJ-Split.
C. SQL Queries (90 points):
Use SQL Server Management Studio
1. Click connect and login into your sql server
2. Choose your database and create new sql file, write your query, and execute it. See below for details.
For each question below, write a single SQL query to answer that question (you can use subqueries this time),
and save your submission in individual files hw3-q1.sql, hw3-q2.sql, etc. For each query, add a comment to
each query the number of rows your query returns, how long the query took, and the first 20 rows of the result (if
the result has fewer than 20 rows, output all of them). You can find the query time on the right side of the yellow
bar at the bottom of the window. You can simply copy and paste the first rows into the comment.
Remember to follow the SQL programming style rules from HW2, repeated here for your convenience:
Give explicit names to all tables referenced in the FROM clause. For instance, instead of writing:
select * from flights, carriers where carrier_id = cid
write
select * from flights as F, carriers as C where F.carrier_id = C.cid
So that it is clear which table you are referring to.
Similarly, reference to all attributes must be qualified by the table name. Instead of writing:
select * from flights where fid = 1
write
select * from flights as F where F.fid = 1
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This will be useful when you write queries involving self joins.
The same applies to aggregates and projections as well. Instead of writing:
select fid, avg(price) from flights group by fid
write
select F.fid, avg(F.price) from flights as F group by F.fid
We reserve the rights to deduct points for queries that don’t conform to these style guidelines, even if they are
correct.
Note that SQL Server interprets NULL values differently than sqlite! Try using it in a WHERE predicate and you will
see the difference.
Now answer the following questions:
1. For each origin city, find the destination city (or cities) with the longest direct flight. By direct flight, we
mean a flight with no intermediate stops. Judge the longest flight in time, not distance. (15 points)
Name the output columns origin_city, dest_city, and time representing the the flight time
between them. Do not include duplicates of the same origin/destination city pair. Order the result by
origin_city and then dest_city.
[Output relation cardinality: 334 rows]
2. Find all origin cities that only serve flights shorter than 3 hours. You can assume that flights with NULL
actual_time are not 3 hours or more. (15 points)
Name the output column city and sort them. List each city only once in the result.
[Output relation cardinality: 109]
3. For each origin city, find the percentage of departing flights shorter than 3 hours. For this question, treat
flights with NULL actual_time values as longer than 3 hours. (15 points)
Name the output columns origin_city and percentage Order by percentage value. Be careful to
handle cities without any flights shorter than 3 hours. We will accept both 0 and NULL as the result for
those cities.
[Output relation cardinality: 327]
4. List all cities that cannot be reached from Seattle though a direct flight but can be reached with one stop
(i.e., with any two flights that go through an intermediate city). Do not include Seattle as one of these
destinations (even though you could get back with two flights). (15 points)
Name the output column city.
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[Output relation cardinality: 256]
5. List all cities that cannot be reached from Seattle through a direct flight nor with one stop (i.e., with any
two flights that go through an intermediate city). Warning: this query might take a while to execute. We will
learn about how to speed this up in lecture. (15 points)
Name the output column city.
(Hint: Do not forget to consider all cities that appear in a flight as an origin_city) (You can assume all
cities to be the collection of all origin_city or all dest_city)
(Note: Do not worry if this query takes a while to execute. We are mostly concerned with the results)
[Output relation cardinality: 3 or 4, depending on what you consider to be the set of all cities]
6. List the names of carriers that operate flights from Seattle to San Francisco, CA. Return each carrier’s
name only once. Use a nested query to answer this question. (7 points)
Name the output column carrier.
[Output relation cardinality: 4]
7. Express the same query as above, but do so without using a nested query. Again, name the output
column carrier. (8 points)
D. Using a Cloud Service (10 points)
The DBMS that we use in this assignment is running somewhere in one of Microsoft’s data centers. Comment on
your experience using this DBMS cloud service. What do you think about the idea of offering a DBMS as a
service in a public cloud?
Save your answer in a file called hw3-d.txt in the submission directory.
Submission Instructions
Answer each of the queries above and put your SQL query in a separate file. Call them hw3-q1.sql, hw3-
q2.sql, etc (and hw3-d.txt for the last question). Make sure you name the files exactly as is. Put your files
inside hw3/submission.

DATA 514 Homework 3: Advanced SQL and Azure
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