Binary Trees, File I/O, and makefiles
THIS ASSIGNMENT SHOULD BE SUBMITTED TO D2L BY 10:00 PM ON SAT, 14-NOV-2020 (YES, THIS IS A WEEK LATER THAN
THE DATE IN THE SYLLABUS, BUT I FEEL THE EXTRA TIME IS WARRANTED). THE ASSIGNMENT WILL BE GRADED AND IS WORTH
100 POINTS. IT IS EASIEST TO GRADE, AND I BELIEVE EASIEST FOR YOU SUBMIT YOUR SOURCE CODE FILES AS TEXT FILES
INSTEAD OF TRYING TO CUT/PASTE YOUR CODE INTO A .docOR .docx FILE.
WE WILL BE USING GITHUB CLASSROOM FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT SO PLEASE PUSH YOUR FINAL CODE AND TRANSCRIPT TO
YOUR HOMEWORK #3 REPOSITORY. WE’D ALSO LIKE YOU TO SUBMIT AN ARCHIVE OF THE REPOSITORY TO YOUR D2L
HOMEWORK #3 DROPBOX.
NOTE: This assignment is notably more complex than the first two assignments. As I mentioned in class
before the midterm, I am providing less detail on the assignments going forward, leaving more of the
design and implementation up to you. I imagine this makes some (maybe many) of you nervous, but I
have confidence in your abilities.
Using Abstract Data Types
This question gives you an opportunity to implement and experiment with Binary trees and with
parsing text files. Our target application builds and operates on a database of MLS (Major
League Soccer) team statistics.
The MLS 2020 season is/was (hopefully) a singular, never to be repeated, occurrence caused by
the Covid-19 pandemic. MLS was one of the first professional sports league to adapt to the
“new normal” starting with a closed MLS is Back tournament held in Orlando, FL in the late
Spring, followed by a shortened “closed gate” (i.e. no fans in the stadium) schedule culminating
in playoffs that start on November 20 and end around Mid-December. Our local team, the
Portland Timbers, won the MLS is Back tournament and have qualified for the playoffs, as have
our arch rivals, the Seattle Sounders. The 3rd team in the Cascadia cup rivalry, the Vancouver
Whitecaps, are currently below the playoff line, but have a very good chance of making the
playoffs. Since the US/Canadian border is closed due to Covid-19, the Whitecaps have been
playing their “home” games in Portland. In fact, the Timbers and the Whitecaps played Sunday
night with the Timbers emerging victorious in a hard fought 1-0 win.
The application you are going to build reads a file containing the win/loss/games statistics for
each of the 26 MLS teams, parses the file and adds the information to a binary tree using an API
that you are going to write. The application traverses the trees (one for each conference) to
display the “Tables” (i.e. the standings) for teams in the Eastern and Western conferences. The
current “Tables” can be found at https://www.mlssoccer.com/standings. The Tables are updated
after every game is completed so the data file included with the release is already obsolete.
As a Binary Tree ADT, this one is pretty simple. There is no searching and no deleting from the
tree – only creating the tree, inserting nodes into the tree, and doing an in-order traversal of the
tree to produce the standings. The application will also determine and “announce” the Shield
winner. The math is simple:
PPG = #Games played / ((#wins * 3pts/win) + (#losses * 0 pts/loss) +
(#ties * 1 pt/tie))
Your application doesn’t need to do the math. PPG is one of the pieces of information provided
in the file. The PPG for each team is the “data” that is used to insert the node into the tree. The
top 8 (of 12) teams in the Western Conference and the top 10 (of 14) teams in the Eastern
Conference qualify for the playoffs. The team with the highest PPG in both conferences wins
The database file
Information for the database will come from a text file called MLS2020.txt that your program
will read. You should place a copy of this file in your working directory for the assignment. I
have included a “helper” function that will parse a line from the file and place the fields in a
struct that your code can operate on. Each record in the file has the following fields with
each field separated by a comma (.csv format):
A char array containing the name of the team. The full name can be scanned by
fscanf() by using the format field [^,].
An int specifying the conference the team plays in (0 for Eastern Conference, 1 for
An int specifying the points the team earned
A float specifying the PPG the team earned
An int specifying the number of games the team played
An int specifying the number of wins the team earned
An int specifying the number of losses the team earned
An int specifying the number of ties (draws) the team earned
For example, The line for the Portland Timbers is:
Which means that the Portland Timbers play in the Western Conference and have earned 35
points (10 wins*3 + 5 losses*0 + 5 ties*1). Their PPG is 35 / 20 games played = 1.75. Lines
that start with // are comments and are ignored.
I have provided the function (in MLSapp_Helpers.c):
TeamInfoPtr_t parseTeamInfo(const char *buf, TeamInfoPtr_t info_ptr)
That takes as input a char string containing a line of text from the file. The function returns a
pointer to a TeamInfo_t struct and can be used to copy the results from the parsed line back
to a TeamInfo struct called info_ptr in the function it is called from.
The TeamInfo_t is defined in MLStree.h.
The binary tree ADT
The application uses one instance of your binary tree ADT for each conference. Because of this
you need to build your binary tree ADT in a way that can independently support more than one
tree. You’ve seen this before in the linked list and queue ADT’s. Those ADT’s support a
create() function that returns a “handle” (pointer) to the instance of the ADT. This is the way
the MLStree is architected. You will write a create function with the following prototype:
MLStreePtr_t createMLStree(MLSconf_t conf, int numTeams, int
numPlayoffTeams) – Creates a new MLStree instance. Returns an MLStreePtr_t
(a pointer to the MLStree struct) as the “handle” for the tree.
Other than creating a binary tree instance, your ADT needs to implement two other functions:
TreeNodePtr_t insert(MLStreePtr_t tree, TeamInfo_t info) – This
function inserts a new TeamInfo_t struct into the correct place in tree. The tree is
ordered based on the PPG field in the TeamInto_t struct.
The following figure illustrates the tree as it would exist if the teams were entered in this order:
Timbers, Sounders, Whitecaps, and the San Jose Earthquakes. Yes, the insertion order does
matter – worst case would be populating a tree with a sorted list…random is better.
void printStandings(MLStreePtr_t tree) – This function does an in-order
traversal of the tree and prints the standings. An in-order traversal of a properly
populated binary tree results in a sorted output. Many algorithms assume an ascending
sort, but in this case your algorithm should do a descending sort since you want the
highest PPG to be listed first. The difference in the algorithm is that the right subtree is
visited before the left subtree. For the tree pictured above the nodes would be visited in
o Start at root and descend the right tree until NULL. Print the standings line for
the root of the NULL node which would be the Sounders.
o Descend the left subtree from the Sounders node which is NULL so nothing is
o Return to the Sounder’s parent which is the Timbers and print its standing line.
o Descend the left subtree of the Timbers node to the Whitecaps subtree and
descend its right subtree. Print the Earthquake’s standings line.
o Descend the left subtree from the Whitecaps which is NULL and print the
Whitecap’s standings line.
There are examples of both recursive and non-recursive in-order traversals in the
Although getting an in-order traversal algorithm based on the PPG field of the
TeamInfo_t is not a trivial task(although you can find sample code that almost meets
the needs of your particular tree structure), the challenge for this function is to produce a
nicely formatted standings line. For example, your printStandings() function must
also indicate whether a team qualifies for the playoffs. In my application my
printStandings() function keeps track of the number of nodes that have been printed
and compares it to the number of playoff teams (saved in the NumPlayoffTeams in the
MLStree_t struct. While you don’t have to mimic the standings line my
application prints (see one of the results files), it does show the information I am
expecting to see.
The hw 3 application
Pseudocode for the HW3 application is as follows:
1. Create two instances of your binary tree ADT, one for the Eastern conference and one for the
Western conference. The Eastern conference has 14 teams with the top 10 teams qualifying for
the playoffs. The Western conference has 12 teams with the top 8 teams qualifying for the
2. Build/populate an MLStree for both conferences by opening the MLS2020.txt file and parsing
each line in the file. I called this function buildMLStrees() in my application. Insert a new
node into the correct (by conference) tree, populating the TeamInfo_t struct using the
parseTeamInfo() function provided in MLSapp_helpers.c. Keep track of the team in each
conference with the best PPG; you will need that information to determine the Shield winner.
You may find the sample code in sample_code/read_string.c helpful in designing your
3. Use the printStandings() function you wrote to display the Tables for each
4. Determine the Shield winner. This is the team with the highest PPG of all of the MLS
teams. Display the winner with a suitable congratulatory message. Print the statistics of
the Shield winner using the printTeamInfo() function in MLSapp_Helpers.c A
transcript of my hw3 output is in the file test_results/hw3_test_results.txt.
Download the hw3 release from D2L and/or accept the Homework #3 assignment in
Read through this write-up (which is likely to be overwhelming at first brush) and
remember Dr Hall’s Panic rule. It’s OK to panic for a few minutes but after that take a
deep breath, get out your highlighter and decide on a design and implementation plan.
It is OK to collaborate with your colleagues on this assignment – in fact, I encourage you
to do so. There is a lot to absorb and a goodly amount of design work to do before you
start writing code. Remember, though, there is a big difference between collaborating
and copying. I encourage the former and strongly discourage the latter.
Study the source code in the starter_code and sample_code directories. Look at the
test results in the test_results folder. Review Karumanchi and the lecture notes for
binary trees. Search online for examples. I’m a big fan of geeksforgeeks.org,
tutorialspoint.com and, of course, stackoverflow.com. There is a wealth of useful
information and sample code available online. Acknowledge the source if you copy more
than a few functions.
Design and implement your binary tree ADT, paying attention to the requirements for
each of the three functions you need to write. The MLStree.h file and the
MLStree_starter.c file provide code you can build on if you’d like. Use the
_VERBOSE_ debug flag in MLStree.h to add debug messages to your code. Even though
my code “mostly worked” the first time, I made use of _VERBOSE_ printf()
messages to root cause the problems I did have. This code is not difficult, but ReadyFire-Aim is not the best approach to follow. Design your code, then write it. Include /**
function preambles, structured blocks of code and meaningful signal names. Build some
error checking logic into the program up front. It’s easier than adding it later or doing
Test your binary tree ADT with the test_MLStree.c starter code I gave you. I did
most of my debug using that. Once my MLStree code was stable it didn’t take a huge
amount of work to create and debug my hw3.c
Design and implement your buildMLStrees() function. This is the key function in
your hw3 application. It needs to read the data, parse it, insert nodes into the proper tree
and keep track of the stats you need to determine the Shield winner.
Implement your final main(). It needs to create and populate the trees, print the
standings for both conferences and “announce” the Shield winner.
Create a makefile to manage the build process for your application
Integrate the functionality and debug and test your final application. If you’ve done a
good job on design and have tested the individual components of your applicaition this
final may be easier than you think.
Build your application using the make file you wrote. Execute your program one last
time. Include a transcript (log) that shows your makefile at work to build the
application. The transcript should also demonstrate that your program is working
correctly. Identify your transcript with your user name or some other identification.
Push all of your source code (.c and .h) files and transcript(s) to your GitHub repository
for the assignment. Upload an archive of your repository to your D2L Homework #3
LOOKING AHEAD: ORGANIZE, SAVE, AND DOCUMENT YOUR WORK. WE MAY REVISIT THIS
SCENARIO IN HOMEWORK #4
ECE 361 Homework #3