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# Project 04 – Graphs

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Project 04 – Graphs

Introduction
You are required to implement two solutions for problems that are embedded
in a graph data structure: Prim’s algorithm in a undirected weighted graph,
Dijkstra’s algorithm in a directed weighted graph; you can only use adjacency
lists to represent your graphs. You are also required to create UML diagrams
for each of the classes that you implement. Finally, you have to provide the
means to test your system by developing a menu program that allows the user
You may use the queue, stack, and list algorithms defined in the C++ standard library (STL). You must use your own implementation for the hash table.
Also, any array must be dynamically allocated.
Underflow exceptions might be generated in some of the functions you implement. Make sure exceptions are thrown and caught where appropriate.
Deliverables
• A 1 page report that explains the design of your solutions. Please include
what each teammate did and approximate hours spent on the project.
• An implementation of Prim’s algorithm.
• An implementation of Dijkstra’s algorithm.
• A menu program to test the implemented data structures.
1 Prim’s algorithm
In this part of the project, you need to implement three classes, a Graph Class,
a Vertex Class, and an Edge Class; create their respective UML diagrams. Calculate the running time of your functions and include them in your report.
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1.1 Description Graphs
1.1 Description
A spanning tree of graph G=(V, E) is another graph T = (V, F) with the same
vertices as G, and |V | − 1 edges of E that form a tree.
A minimum spanning tree (MST) T of G is a spanning tree whose total
weight (summed over all edges of T) is minimal.
For this part of the project you will implement Prim’s algorithm to find
an MST in a undirected weighted graph; an adjacency list has to be
used to represent the graph. Vertices are represented by their names in the
graph. To ease the execution of some of your operations, your graph has to have
a hash table to store all the vertices, where the key is the name of the vertex
and the value is the vertex object. In the event you need information (data,
edges, etc) about a particular vertex, you will have to hash the vertex’s name
and find the vertex object in the table (you may use linear probing).
1.2 Data Members
Specify all the data members your implementation needs.
1.3 Member Functions
Constructors
Defines constructor. Maximum graph size is 20 vertices.
Destructor
Defines destructor. Clean up any allocated memory.
Accessors
bool empty() Returns true if the graph is empty, false otherwise.
int degree(string v) Returns the degree of the vertex v. Throw an illegal
argument exception if the argument does not correspond to an existing vertex.
int edgeCount() Returns the number of edges in the graph
bool isConnected() Determines if the graph is connected.
double adjacent( string u, string v ) Returns the weight of the edge
connecting vertices u and v. If the vertices are the same, return 0. If the vertices
are not adjacent, return -1 (our representation of infinity). Throw an illegal
argument exception if the arguments do not correspond to existing vertices.
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1.3 Member Functions Graphs
DFS(string v) Performs DFS traversal starting on vertex v. Reset vertices after the traversal. Prints the order of vertices visited.
BFS(string v) Performs BFS traversal starting on vertex v. Reset vertices after the traversal. Prints the order of vertices visited.
MST( string v ) Returns the minimum spanning tree using Prim’s algorithm of those vertices which are connected to vertex v. Throw an illegal
argument exception if the argument does not correspond to an existing vertex.
Mutators
void buildGraph() Reads structure from a text file and builds a undirected weighted graph.
clear() Removes all the elements in the undirected weighted graph
reset() Iterates over all vertices in the graph and marks them as unvisited.
insert(string u, string v, double w) If the weight w < 0 or w = ∞,
throw an illegal argument exception. If the weight w is 0, remove any edge
between u and v (if any). Otherwise, add an edge between vertices u and v
with weight w. If an edge already exists, replace the weight of the edge with the
new weight. If the vertices do not exist or are equal, throw an illegal argument
exception.
Friends
Defines friends for this class.
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Graphs
2 Dijkstra’s algorithm
In this part of the project, you need to implement three classes, a DirGraph
Class, a Vertex Class, and an Edge Class; create their respective UML diagrams.
Calculate the running time of your functions and include them in your report.
2.1 Description
Dijkstra’s algorithm is an algorithm to find the shortest path among vertices in
a graph.
For this part of the project you will implement Dijkstra’s algorithm to
find the shortest path between a source vertex and the rest of the
vertices in a directed weighted graph; an adjacency list has to be
used to represent the graph. Vertices are represented by their names in the
graph. To ease the execution of some of your operations, your graph has to have
a hash table to store all the vertices, where the key is the name of the vertex
and the value is the vertex object. In the event you need information (data,
edges, etc) about a particular vertex, you will have to hash the vertex’s name
and find the vertex object in the table.
2.2 Data Members
Specify all the data members your implementation needs.
2.3 Member Functions
Constructors
Defines constructor. Maximum graph size is 20 vertices.
Destructor
Defines destructor. Clean up any allocated memory.
Accessors
bool empty() Returns true if the graph is empty, false otherwise.
int inDegree(string v) Returns the indegree of the vertex v. Throw an
illegal argument exception if the argument does not correspond to an existing
vertex.
int outDegree(string v) Returns the outdegree of the vertex v. Throw
an illegal argument exception if the argument does not correspond to an existing
vertex.
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2.3 Member Functions Graphs
int edgeCount() Returns the number of edges in the graph
double adjacent( string u, string v ) Returns the weight of the edge
connecting vertices u and v. If the vertices are the same, return 0. If the vertices
are not adjacent, return -1 (our representation of infinity). Throw an illegal
argument exception if the arguments do not correspond to existing vertices.
DFS(string v) Performs DFS traversal starting on vertex v. Reset vertices after the traversal. Prints the order of vertices visited.
BFS(string v) Performs BFS traversal starting on vertex v. Reset vertices after the traversal. Prints the order of vertices visited.
shortPath( string u, string v ) Returns the shortest path using Dijkstra’s between vertices u and v. Throw an illegal argument exception if the
arguments do not correspond to existing vertices.
double distance( string u, string v ) Returns the shortest distance
between vertices u and v. Throw an illegal argument exception if the arguments
do not correspond to existing vertices. The distance between a vertex and
itself is 0.0. The distance between vertices that are not connected is -1 (our
representation of infinity).
Mutators
void buildGraph() Reads structure from a text file and builds a directed
weighted graph.
clear() Removes all the elements in the undirected weighted graph
reset() Iterates over all vertices and marks them as unvisited.
insert(string u, string v, double w) If the weight w ≤ 0, throw an
illegal argument exception. If the weight is w 0, add an edge between vertices
u and v. If an edge already exists, replace the weight of the edge with the
new weight. If the vertices do not exist or are equal, throw an illegal argument
exception.
Friends
Defines friends for this class.
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Graphs
3 Graph Representation
Format for the text file
The example text file for the buildGraph() method is uploaded to Canvas. Up
to twenty vertices (string) will be listed with white spaces between, followed by
a new line. Next, each edge will be listed: u (string), space, v (string), space,
weight (double), new line. The same format is used for directed and undirected
graphs.
Format for printing Prim’s MST (edges and total weight)
A B 4
A C 6.4
C F 3
A D 9
Distance: 22.4
Format for printing Dijkstra’s shortest path (distance to each node
from A)
A 0
B 4
C 3.1
D 6
F 7
In order to test your program, you are required to implement a menu program
that provides the means to run each of the functions in your classes (name your
executable proj4). The TA will choose one group to demo the project.
First, prompt the user for the type of graph (char ’d’ for directed or char ’u’
for undirected). Next, prompt for a file name (using path provided) for the .txt
file to load the graph. The format of an example .txt file is provided on Canvas
for you to be able to test your work. Next, give the following options for the
specific graph (please have them in this EXACT order for grading purposes):
Undirected Graph (Prim’s)
1. Empty?
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Graphs
2. Degree (v)
3. Edge count
4. Connected?
6. DFS (v)
7. BFS (v)
8. Print MST (v)
9. Clear
10. Insert (u, v, w)
11. Exit
Directed Graph (Dijkstra’s)
1. Empty?
2. InDegree (v)
3. OutDegree (v)
4. Edge count
6. DFS (v)
7. BFS (v)
8. Print Short path (v)
9. Clear
10. Insert (u, v, w)
11. Exit
Submit the following files to Canvas (named EXACTLY as shown below
without zipping for grading purposes: (you may also include implementation
files with the header files if you would like)
2. graph.h
3. vertex.h
4. edge.h
5. dirGraph.h
6. makefile (name your executable ’proj4’)
7. project4.pdf
The rubric is as follows:
1. A program that does not compile will result in a zero
2. Runtime error and compilation warning 5%
3. Commenting and style 15%
4. Report 10%
5. Functionality 70% (functions were declared and implemented as required)
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Graphs
5 The Project Report
You must include everything you consider relevant in your design, UML diagrams, and algorithm analysis.
6 Acknowledgment
This project was created based on the work shared by the University of Waterloo.
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Project 04 – Graphs
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