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The Auckland Road System

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The Auckland Road System
In this assignment, you will implement a Road System for Auckland, to provide the user with
route finding using A* search, and critical intersection identification with the Articulation Points
algorithm.
For this assignment, you may reuse the core part of your program (for graph representation and
display) from assignment 1, or you can use the template code provided.
Resources
The assignment webpage also contains:
• An archive of the template code.
• An archive of the road data files.
• The marking guide.
The data
There are various sources of geographical information such as road data. With the help of Andrew
Rae and Dr. Mairead de Roiste from SGEES, we have a collection of data on roads in the Auckland
region. The data is from the NZ Open GPS Project (http://nzopengps.org/). The original
data is in a format designed for certain GIS tools; we have processed the data somewhat to make
it easier for you to work with. The data is now in the form of a collection of tab separated files.
The details are given below.
Road data is not particularly simple. A road system consists of a set of roads. Each road has a
name and goes along a particular path (a sequence of coordinate positions). The road also has
properties such as its type, its speed limit, whether it is one-way, etc. A road may have different
properties in different parts – the speed limit might be higher in one part than another, or part
of it might be one way.
Roads intersect with each other, but not just at their end points. A road might have a large
number of intersections along it, each intersecting with a different road. The intersections will
break up a road into a sequence of road segments; each segment is a part of a road going between
two intersections (or an intersection and the end of a road).
There are also constraints on intersections – it may be forbidden to turn from one road to another
at an intersection, even if going the other way is allowed (e.g. ‘No Right Turn’ signs).
Therefore, the data consists of three kinds of objects we care about:
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Nodes are locations where roads end, join, or intersect. The node data can be found in the
nodeID-lat-lon.tab file: a tab separated text file with one line for each node, specifying
the ID of the node, and the latitude and longitude of the node. Note that latitude and
longitude are specified in degrees, not distances. One degree of latitude corresponds to
111.0 kilometers. One degree of longitude varies, depending on the latitude, but we assume
that in Auckland, one degree of longitude is 88.649 kilometers. This means that when you
are computing distances between two points, you must scale the latitude difference by 111.0
and scale the longitude difference by 88.649.
Road Segments are a part of a road between two intersections (nodes). The only intersections
on a road segment are at its ends. The data includes the length of each segment. The
road segment data is in the roadSeg-roadID-length-nodeID-nodeID-coords.tab file: a
tab separated text file with one line for each road segment, specifying the ID of the road
object this segment belongs to, the length of the segment and the ID’s of the nodes at each
end of the segment, followed by the coordinates of the road segment for drawing it. The
first line of the file specifies the fields in each line. The coordinates are given as a sequence
of latitude and longitude coordinates of points along the centerline of the road segment.
The coordinates consist of an even number of floating point numbers, and there are always
at least two pairs of numbers (for each end of the road segment); some segments have a
lot more coordinates.
Roads are a sequences of segments, with a name and other properties. These need not be an
entire road – a real road that has different properties for some parts will be represented in
the data by several road objects, all with the same name. A very important property of
roads is whether they are one-way or not. The road data is in the roadID-roadInfo.tab file,
with one line for each road object. The first value on the line is the roadID. The columns
are specified at the top of the file. The meaning of the numeric columns is specified in the
README.txt file.
Later (Challenging) stages of this assignment also use the restrictions data:
Restrictions prohibit traveling through one path of an intersection. The restriction data is in
the restrictions.tab file, with one line for each restriction. Each line has five values:
nodeID-1, roadID-1, nodeID, roadID-2, nodeID-2. The middle nodeID specifies the intersection involved. The restriction specifies that it is not permitted to turn from the road
segment of roadID-1 going between nodeID-1 and the intersection into the road segment
of roadID-2 going between the intersection and nodeID-2.
There are two datasets:
large/: a set of data for the complete Auckland region, (30035 roads, 12875 distinct road names,
354760 intersections, and 42480 road segments),
small/: a much smaller set of data for a region around the central city (746 roads, 481 distinct
road names, 1080 intersections, 1412 road segments). The small data set will be helpful
for testing your program since it should be much faster to load.
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The template code
The template code has its main method in Mapper.java. It has the following functionalities:
• Parse the data into the program and store as a Graph. In the graph, each Node is an
intersection, and each road Segment is an edge which connects two intersections.
• Display the graph on the screen. It can shift the display, and zoom in/out.
• When clicking on the screen, it will highlight the closest node in the graph, and show its
information in the text field.
If you use the template code, feel free to modify the classes if necessary. For example, the
template Node class contains a single adjacency list as below:
1 public class Node {
2 public final int nodeID ;
3 public final Location location ;
4 public final Collection < Segment > segments ;
5 …
You should separate the incoming and outgoing segments for route finding.
Note: There are two parsing class files (Parser.java and Parser-Stream.java) in the template
code. Parser.java uses traditional implementation, while Parser-Stream.java uses Stream
functionality (introduced in Java 8). The Parser-Stream.java is provided as an example to help
you get familiar with how Stream works in Java (not required in this course though). But the
two parsing classes have the same functionality, so feel free to use either of them.
Route finding
The route finding feature should allow the user to specify two intersections on the map and will
then find (using A* search) and display the shortest route between those two locations. It
should highlight the route on the map (by colouring all the road segments along the route) and
should also output a list of all the roads along the route, along with the lengths of each part of
the route and the total length of the route. For example, it might print a route in the form:
Beauchamp Street: .45km
Karori Road: 1.3km
Chaytor St: 1.11km
Glenmore St: 0.039km
Upland Road: 0.909km
Glen Road: 0.4km
Total distance = 4.208km
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The basic version of the route finding will find the route with the shortest distance and display
it on the map and by listing all the road segments (and lengths) along the route. There are
improvements that you can make on this basic version:
• Combine adjacent segments of the route that are all from the same road.
• Allow the user to select between time and distance, so that it can either find the shortest
distance route or the fastest route, assuming the speed limits specified in the road info file.
(This data does not appear to be correct, but use it anyway).
• Take into account the turn restrictions in the file restrictions.tab, which specifies the
turns that are not allowed at intersections (for example an intersection might have a ‘no
right turn’ restriction from one of the roads entering the intersection). You will need to
extend your data structure to cope with this.
• Take into account the delay at intersections, e.g. traffic lights will slow you down.
Critical intersections
The second feature is an analysis tool that might be used by emergency services planners who
want to identify every intersection that would have bad consequences for emergency services if it
were blocked or disabled in some way. An intersection that is the only entrance way into some
part of the map is an critical intersection (‘articulation point’). Your program should identify all
such intersections and colour highlight them. Note that emergency services don’t care about one
way roads – in an emergency they can go either way, if necessary. They also don’t care about ‘no
right turn’ restrictions.
The articulation points algorithm assumes that the graph is undirected, doesn’t care about the
lengths of edges, and doesn’t care whether there are multiple edges between two nodes. In fact,
all it needs is a collection of nodes and the set of neighbouring nodes of each node. This means
that you cannot use exactly the same data structures as you used for the route finding algorithm.
For the route finding, each node (intersection) needed a set of the edges (road segments) coming
out of the node, where the segments included the length and the node at the other end; for the
articulation points, each node needs a set of neighbouring nodes (i.e. the nodes at the other end
of segments both in and out of the node). You should extend your program to build this structure
as it reads the data.
Hint: The graph may be disconnected and contain multiple isolated connected components. Your
program should be able to find all the articulation points for all the connected components.
Hint: There are 240 articulation points in the small graph, and 10853 articulation points in the
large graph.
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Your program
You are suggested to solve this problem in stages as below, the provided marking guide gives a
detailed breakdown of core/completion/challenge.
Minimum – Basic A*.
• Ignore the road class, speed, and restriction data; Extend your program to allow the user
to select two intersections – start and end. Find the shortest path from the start location
to the goal location, printing out the sequence of road segments (including road names
and segment lengths) in the text output area at the bottom of the window. Your program
should use an A* search algorithm. You may use Euclidean distance between a node and
the goal node as the heuristic (see Location.java). For testing purposes, it may be useful
to include the nodeID’s and roadID’s in the output.
Hint: The report you write must include a detailed pseudocode specification of the A*
search you used, particularly the designed heuristic function. Write this detailed pseudocode
algorithm before you try to code it up! And then update the pseudocode if you have to
change the code later. It is seldom a good idea to launch into coding of this kind of program
without working through the detailed design first.
Core – Articulation points.
• Implement the articulation points algorithm to find all the nodes that are articulation points,
then highlight them. This can be done with either the recursive or iterative version of the
algorithm, but the iterative version is worth more marks.
Hint: again, write up a detailed pseudocode algorithm.
Completion – Improved route finding.
• Incorporate one-way roads into your route finding system, so that a route will never take
you the wrong way down a one-way street.
• Make the output of the route nicer: it should merge a sequence of road segments all from
the same road into a single step, and include the total length of the step.
Challenge – More improved route finding.
• Take into account the restriction information.
• Add buttons to select distance or time. Include road class and speed limit information to
make your search prefer routes on high class roads and faster roads. You may have to do
some experimenting to work out a good way of using these factors. You also need to make
sure that your heuristic estimate is still a lower bound on the actual cost.
• Incorporate traffic light information and prefer routes with fewer traffic lights. (You may
have to go and find the data yourself – some exists, but apparently it isn’t very reliable.)
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To submit
You should submit four things:
• All the source code (.java files) for your program, including the template code if you use
it. Please make sure you do this, without it we cannot give you any marks. Again:
submit all your .java files.
• Any other files your program needs to run that aren’t the data files provided.
• A report on your program to help the marker understand the code. The report should:
– describe what your code does and doesn’t do (e.g., which stages and extensions above
did you do).
– give a detailed pseudocode algorithm for the main search.
– describe your path cost and heuristic estimate
– outline how you tested that your program worked.
The report should be clear, but it does not have to be fancy – very plain formatting is all
that is needed. It must be either a txt or a pdf file. It does not need to be long, but you
need to help the marker see what you did.
Note that for marking, you will need to sign up for a 15 minute slot with the markers.
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PlaceholderThe Auckland Road System
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